How to Use Sensors to Detect Missing Content from Foil Wrappers

An application to detect if the contents of a foil wrapper are missing is fairly easy to solve using two sets of industrial grade high-powered infrared photoelectric sensors.

Many industries use foil wrappers to package products. For quality control, it is a good idea to have a system capable of automatically detecting when the contents of those wrappers are missing. Some companies use human beings to manually pick and choose wrappers, which is tedious, and not very efficient. There is a solution that really works; infrared photoelectric sensors.

Position one set of infrared photoelectric sensors in a through-beam configuration, so that the foil wrapper will move between the sensors at a given point. Adjust the sensitivity of the infrared photoelectric sensors so that they will detect the foil wrapper whether it is full or empty. The sensors should be at their most sensitive setting for this. The output from this set of sensors will report to the PLC to let it know when a foil wrapper is present.

Position the second set of infrared photoelectric sensors beside the first set, also in a through-beam configuration and facing the same direction. Be sure that the sensors are set to different frequencies to avoid cross-talk between the two sets. This set of sensors should be adjusted to its least sensitive setting. In other words, crank the gain setting to the max. Assuming that the photoelectric sensors being used are industrial grade, they should be able to see through an empty wrapper easily, but not one containing product. This set should also report to the PLC.

Now, you have two infrared beams of light striking the foil wrapper as it passed. One is used as a reference to let the PLC know when a foil wrapper is present. The second set of sensors lets the PLC know when a foil wrapper is missing its expected contents. This system is very reliable and is in use at a number of companies worldwide.

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How to Take Pictures at a Nude Beach

Are you thinking of visiting a nude beach? You will probably want to take some pictures to remember the fun time you and your family had on the beach. Before you start snapping pictures, there are some things that you need to consider.

Visiting any beach in the world, you should always be respectful of other people. Almost everyone travels to the beach to relax and enjoy themselves. Nudists or naturists are no different. The last thing they want is to be harassed by someone who is up to no good. Think of it this way, how would you act on a beach where you and everyone else were fully-clothed? You should act no different on a nude beach. If your normal behavior is that of a complete sociopath, then you should not visit the nude beach, but instead go seek professional help or stay at home.

Be prepared for your beach trip by taking plenty of refreshments and snacks with you, as most nude beaches don't have public facilities nearby. Also take beach towels or bamboo mats and a first aid kit. If you take your camera, make sure it is well protected. Sand and water are the natural enemies of a digital camera. If you and your family are situated apart from other people on the beach, then nobody will be upset if you take photos of your family. If you are sitting in close proximity to other people, give them the opportunity to excuse themselves or ask permission before taking their picture.

If you show up at a nude beach with your family and are enjoying yourselves in the nude, you are friendly with the people around you and even get to know them; you will probably encounter less resistance when you ask to take a picture or two. If you show up to the nude beach as a single guy and you start just taking pictures of people without their consent, then you will probably not receive a warm welcome.

Think of it this way, how would you like for other people to treat your family? Would you like naked pictures of your wife and kids showing up on the Internet? Maybe it doesn't bother you, but for many people it does. Always treat people with kindness and respect and it will be returned tenfold. Enjoy your visit to the nude beach. Be sure to clean up after yourself. Help to make the naturist pastime less taboo by contributing to a positive atmosphere on the beach and by not causing trouble. When you look at the pictures that you took on your trip, you should remember each one fondly and be able to name every person in the picture.

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How to Create Custom Stock Watchlists Using E-trade

Trading on the stock exchange can be a challenging experience for a new investor. Many tools are available to help do-it-yourself traders, but sometimes, they are not easy to find and use. This article details how to easily create custom watchlists using the E-trade website in order to track stocks from different companies.

Sign up for an E-trade Financial account and deposit the money that you wish to invest. While waiting for the funds to transfer, begin researching the companies that you are considering investing in. This area is found under the "Quotes and Research" tab.

To add the stock to a watchlist, there are two options. From the "snapshot" screen of the company's stock, there is a link on the right-hand side of the screen under "Quick Links" for "Add to Watchlist." Clicking this link will add the stock to your generic watchlist.

Finding the watchlist can be a challenge and when we do find it, we will address the second method for creating custom watchlists. Click the "Trading & Portfolios" tab and then click the "Portfolios" sub-tab. Once you have purchased some stock, it will be displayed on this screen. Now, click the dropdown box beside "Account/Watchlist." There is an option on this list labeled "Investments to Watch." Selecting this option will present a screen displaying all of the stocks that have been added to the generic watchlist.

Let's say you want to group these stocks into categories, for example, breweries. This is very easy to do. Beside the dropdown box, there is a link for "Create / Edit List." Click "create." Step 1 on this screen is to give your watchlist a name. We'll name it "Breweries." Step 2 has a box where the stock symbols, or ticker symbols may be typed or copy/pasted from another source. Try adding these symbols (without the quotes) "ABV,BUD,SAM,TAP,PMID,HOOK", and then click the button labeled, "Add Holding Information."

From the dropdown box, you will now have the option to view the stocks that you own, the generic watchlist, and any other watchlist that has been created. For an easy way to find different stocks from companies in similar industries, use Google and search for terms like "breweries stock" or "automotive manufacturer stock." Have fun, but invest your time and money wisely.

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How to Demagnetize Magnetic Media

Do you have some old VHS tapes, floppy disks, or hard drives that need to be erased? This process can be very time consuming if you manually erase them one by one. With the proper equipment, you can make the information disappear in minutes, rather than days or weeks.

Purchase a magnetic media eraser/degausser from an online source or at a retail store that carries them. Research the different types of available magnetic erasers to find the one that meets your needs.  Read the included instructions for processing the type of media that you have. Arrange all of the media that you want to erase into a separate group and be sure that they are all really expendable. If you are not certain, review the media before putting it through the eraser device. This erasure/degaussing process is irreversible!

Quickly erase all of your information from the magnetic media forever. Reshelf and reuse your media or dispose of it properly. You might consider donating it to a local school or organization that can put the old media to good use.

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How to Sing like Johnny Cash

So you’ve been listening to the “man in black” and you want to learn to sing like him? Hey, if Joaquin Phoenix can do it, why can’t you? It’s not that difficult to impersonate this rock and roll icon.

If you are gifted with a deep voice, then singing like Johnny Cash shouldn't be too hard. Find the lyrics to your favorite Johnny Cash songs online and memorize them. Also purchase these songs so that you can listen to them repeatedly.

For guys with a voice that's not-so-deep, try adjusting your larynx (Adam's apple) up and down as you talk. You should notice that as you move it downward, your voice gets deeper. That lower range is what you'll need when attempting to sing these songs.

Pick an easy Johnny Cash song, like "Ring of Fire." Sing along with the music that you bought legally from an online music source. If you are a member of a band, see if they will agree to practice playing some of his music with you. If not, save your newly-developed skills for karaoke night and blow everyone away. Don't forget to dress in all black to add a touch of authenticity to your performance.

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How to Clean up the Earth and Make Less Work for Our Children

How can we start right now and make the Earth a nicer place to live so that our children don't inherit a huge mess?  Start by looking at the things you throw away. Are you disposing of your waste properly? Is any of it recyclable? If you are buying products that are harmful to the environment or do not decompose, are there safer products that you could use instead? Start or join a neighborhood clean up project or participate in the "adopt a highway" program if it exists in your area. If just one person makes a conscious decision to do better and think "green", the positive impact on the environment will be staggering. When lots of people get involved, others will notice.

Encourage as many people as you can to help you in your mission. Have a positive discussion with your kids about conservation and teach them good habits by setting a good example yourself. Remind adults that littering is wrong. If you catch a litterbug red-handed, don't ignore them. Report them to the authorities! Memorize their license plate and call your local police department. Some law enforcement websites even have pages devoted to reporting litterbugs.

Write or email your Senators and Congressmen and share ideas about conservation. Donate money to watchdog groups who fight to protect the Earth! Better yet, donate your time and energy to help their cause. It's up to all of us to protect the Earth's precious environment now, so that our children and every generation after them don't have to clean up our mess. Remember, some damage cannot be undone. Let's change our lifestyles before it's too late.

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How to Determine Which Wire is “Hot” in Household Wiring

Your home repair project involves installing a light fixture and an electrical outlet. You flipped the breakers and disconnected the existing fixture, but now you’re uncertain which wire is the “hot” one. What now?

In the United States, household wiring code offers us a clue as to which wire SHOULD correspond to what. Extreme caution should be used, however, when dealing with electricity, even if you feel certain that you know which wire is which. The possibility exists that a misguided handy-man who came before you made the wrong choice connecting the wires. You can never be too careful when your life is at risk.

According to code, the black wire is always the "hot" or "live" wire, meaning, it is connected to a source supplying 110 VAC. If you are connecting this wire to an electrical outlet, this wire should connect to the narrow spade, or brass colored terminal. If you have not switched off the breakers like you're supposed to and you grab the copper conductor of this wire, you will probably feel an unmistakable tingling sensation quickly travel up your arm. If you do feel it, let go of the wire because this sensation is not good for you. If this happens to you often, be sure to have someone around who knows CPR and first aid when you do home repairs.

The green wire is your friend. This is the ground wire. Its sole purpose for existing is to save your life by providing electricity an alternate path to ground. In the case of a short circuit, the current passes through the ground wire and overloads the breakers, causing them to trip. Sometimes this wire will also have a yellow stripe. Be sure to connect the ground wire properly when performing an electrical repair. If the copper conductor of the "hot" wire that we just discussed were to maneuver it's way over to the metal casing of, for example your ceiling fan, and make contact with it without the ground wire attached, you would be in for a nasty surprise when you touched the metal casing of the fan.

The white wire is known as the "neutral" wire. In any circuit, whether AC or DC, there has to be a complete path in order for the electrical current to flow. The white wire alone should not have a charge and should not hurt you if you touch it. If installing an electrical outlet, this wire connects to the wide spade or silver colored terminal.  Sometimes, you will find a red wire living side-by-side with the black, white, and green wires. This wire is known as a "traveler" wire and is used to connect power between 3-way light switches.

Always use caution when working with household wiring. Turn off the breaker that corresponds to the circuit that you are working on. If you are not certain which one is which, switch off the main breaker. Even then, it is a good idea to test the wires with a multimeter to be absolutely certain that the wires are not "hot". It's a good idea to test between the black wire and the white wire and then between the black wire and the green wire. It is important to note that when reading AC voltage with a multimeter, if you connect your probes between two wires that are both "hot" (110VAC) the reading will be 0 volts. (A lesson that I learned the hard way!) Always know what you are doing when dealing with electricity. Small mistakes could prove to be fatal.

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